Other|others, those|that, doble verb » to + infinive

#QOW18A_PEMBAHASAN

1. The evolutionary adaptation (of) a particular species of over time (occurs) in response to
(environmental) conditions, including (others) animals.
A. (of)
B. (occurs)
C. (environmental)
D. (others)

📝 analisanya :
Semantically: Adaptasi evolusioner spesies tertentu dari waktu ke waktu terjadi pd tanggapan terhadap kondisi lingkungan, termasuk hewan2 lainnya.

Secara semantic sebenarnya pd soal (others) membuat makna menjadi ‘… hewan2 lain2’ dimana seharusnya maknanya ‘… hewan2 lainnya’.

Syntactically:
– The evolutionary adaptation of a particular species of over time : subject
– occurs : verb
– in : preposition
– response : noun as object of preposition
– to : preposition
– environmental conditions : noun phrase as object of preposition
– including : present participle
– OTHERS animals : noun phrase as object of participle.

Syntactically ‘OTHERS’ bertubrukan dengan ‘animals’ yg sama2 ada ‘s’-nya.

Explanation:
‘Other’ can function as both of adjective and noun. Example: ‘the other days’ (as adjective); ‘I love you and no other’ or ‘the others answer later’ (as noun).

A. (of) ✔ is already CORRECT. It is a preposition that functions to tell specifically about the subject ‘ evolutionary adaptation’
B. (occurs) ✔ is already CORRECT. It’s verb of the sentence in Present Tense. The base form ‘occur’ + ‘-s’ is correct coz the subject is singular.
C. (environmental) ✔ is already CORRECT. It functions as the adjective of noun ‘conditions’.
D. (others) ❌ INCORRECT. In this sentence ‘other’ must be an adjective coz it comes before noun ‘animals’. (others) is a noun, therefore it makes the sentence INCORRECT. To function as an adjective it must be changed to ‘other’.

The correct form of sentence:
The evolutionary adaptation of a particular species of over time occurs in response to environmental conditions, including OTHER animals.
(syasa, 2c: 2016)

👆penjelasan ini di lengkapi oleh: 👇

Ada kesalahan penggunaan pronoun yang seharusnya adjective. >> lihat skill 60.

✅ A. (of) merupakan preposition.
✅ B. (occurs) merupakan verb dari subject “the evolutionary adaptation”, benar menggunakan -s karena subject merupakan singular noun dan kalimat menggunakan simple present tense.
✅ C. (environmental) merupakan adjective, terlihat dari letaknya yang sebelum noun ” conditions.
❌ D. (others) seharusnya OTHER karena meeupakan adjective. Terlihat dari letaknya yang sebelum noun “animals”. Others (dengan -s) dapat digunakan jika merupakan pronoun dan lazimnya tidak diikuti noun.

The evolutionary adaptation of a particular species of over time occurs in response to environmental conditions, including OTHER animals.
(A. Baihaqi,1A:2016)

✏Best answer: D  Others 👉other

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2. Saturn is the (second largest) planet (after) Jupiter, (with) a diameter nearly ten times (those of) Earth.
A. (second largest)
B. (after)
C. (with)
D. (those of)

📝 analisanya :
A. second largest✅ merupakan noun phrase yg penggunaannya sudah tepat
B. after✅ merupakan conjunction of time, penggunaan after+noun (Jupiter) sudah tepat sesuai makna kalimat
C. with✅ penggunaan with + noun (diameter) sudah tepat, sesuai makna kalimat yg menyatakan “memiliki”
D. those of❌ krn penggunaan those utk menunjukkan sesuatu/seseorang yg jauh dari kita dan digunakan untuk plural noun, sedangkan yg dibicarakan disini adalah a diameter (singular noun) maka seharusnya those of ➡️ that of, penggunaan that adalah untuk menunjukkan sesuatu/seseorang yg jauh dari kita tapi berbentuk singular.
(merry,1A:2016)

👆 penjelasan ini di lengkapi oleh: 👇

Ada kesalahan terkait singular vs plural.

✅ A. (second largest) sebagai bagian dari bentuk superlative dan benar menggunakan -est.
✅ B. (after) merupakan preposition yang memberi keterangan tambahan planet mana yang terbesar.
✅ C. (with) merupakan preposition.
❌ D. (those of) seharusnya THAT OF karena me-refer pada diameter yang merupakan singular noun. ” that” berfungsi sebagai pronoun/pengganti dari diameter.

Saturn is the second largest planet after Jupiter, with a diameter nearly ten times THAT OF Earth.
* Kalimat di atas semilar to: Saturn is the second largest planet after Jupiter, with a diameter nearly ten times OF EARTH’S (diameter).
(A. Baihaqi,1A:2016)

✏Best answer: those of 👉 that of

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3.  Ogden Nash often (extended) sentences over (several) (lines produce) surprising and (comical) rhymes.
A. (extended)
B. (several)
C. (lines produce)
D. (comical)

📝 analisanya :
Syntactically:
Kalimat di atas memiliki 2 verbs (padahal tidak memiliki 2 klausa), sehingga secara sintaksis kalimatnya tidak tepat. Salah satu verba nya harus diubah menjadi TO INFINITIVE.

Semantically:
Kata produce dalam kalimat di atas bukanlah verb, sehingga perlu diubah menjadi to infinitive » TO PRODUCE

Part of speech:
S: Ogden Nash
V: extended
Adverb: often, over Adjective: several, surprising, comical
N: sentences, lines, rhymes
To infinitive (not verb): to produce
(Lu’Lu,2C :2016)

✏Best answer: lines produce 👉 lines to produce

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